Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Steroids - Research Paper Example Recently, steroids have been in discussion with the media. In addition, many sports related persons are heard or seen on media charged with the steroid abuse. However, steroids are comprised of several different names for example stackers, pumpers, gym candy, weight trainers, roids, gear, Arnolds (Lau ) and the most popular one is juice (Freedman 64). In recent years steroids are being used in the treatment of many diseases like asthma, lack of proper growth, cancer, osteoporosis and other skin related disease (Freedman 64). They are defined as a Ã¢â¬Å"class of lipids having a particular molecular ring structure called the cyclopentanoperhydro-phenanthrene ring system. Steroids differ from one another in the structure of various side chains and additional rings. Steroids are common in both plants and animals. In humans, steroids are secreted by the ovaries and testes, the adrenal cortexÃ¢â¬ ("Steroids." 1-1). Moreover, the chemical substances that are produced in the human body in order to control the metabolism are known as hormones. The hormones act as a courier that controls the actions of the body by sending messages to the body tissues (LeVert 96). Similarly, steroids are also like hormones, they are substances prepared in the laboratory and are known as synthetic steroids that are used for the treatment of medical issues (Freedman 64). The hormones in males for example testosterones are responsible for the improvement of male distinctiveness such as facial hairs, intensifying male voices or bu lky muscles. Males produce large amount of testosterone that helps in enhancement of male features. Anabolic steroids are also derived from male sex hormones testosterones. In addition, steroids are used by many health professionals for the treatment of several diseases but these steroids can be availed only by the medical prescription (Freedman 64). These are the natural steroids produced in the human body by a gland known as the adrenal cortex.
Monday, January 27, 2020
Application of Regression Analysis Chapter-3 Methodology In the application of regression analysis, often the data set consist of unusual observations which are either outliers (noise) or influential observations. These observations may have large residuals and affect the parameters of the regression co-efficient and the whole regression analysis and become the source of misleading results and interpretations. Therefore it is very important to consider these suspected observations very carefully and made a decision that either these observations should be included or removed from the analysis. In regression analysis, the basic step is to determine whether one or more observations can influence the results and interpretations of the analysis. If the regression analysis have one independent variable, then it is easy to detect observations in dependent and independent variables by using scatter plot, box plot and residual plot etc. But graphical method to identify outlier and/or influential observation is a subjective approach. It is also well known that in the presence of multiple outliers there can be a masking or swamping effect. Masking (false negative) occurs when an outlying subset remains undetected due the presence of another, usually adjacent subset. Swamping (false positive) occurs when usual observation is incorrectly identified as outlier in the presence of another usually remote subset of observations. In the present study, some well known diagnostics are compared to identify multiple influential observations. For this purpose, first, robust regression methods are used to identify influential observation in Poisson regression, then to conform that the observations identified by robust regression method are genuine influential observations, some diagnostic measures based on single case deletion approach like Pearson chi-square, deviance residual, hat matrix, likelihood residual test, cookÃ¢â¬â¢s distance, difference of fits, squared difference in beta are considered but in the presence of masking and swamping diagnostics based on single case deletion fail to identify outlier and influential observations. Therefore to remove or minimize the masking and swamping phenomena some group deletion approaches; generalized standardized Pearson residual, generalized difference of fits, generalized squared difference in beta are taken. Ã Ã 3.2 Diagnostic measures based on single case deletion This section presents the detail of single case deleted measures which are used to identify multiple influential observations in Poisson regression model. These measures are change in Pearson chi-square, change in deviance, hat matrix, likelihood residual test, cookÃ¢â¬â¢s distance, difference of fits (DFFITS),squared difference in beta(SDBETA). Pearson chi-square To show the amount of change in Poisson regression estimates that would occurred if the kth observation is deleted, Pearson Ãâ¡2 statistic is proposed to detect the outlier. Such diagnostic statistics are one that examine the effected of deleting single case on the overall summary measures of fit. Let denotes the Pearson Ãâ¡2 and denotes the statistic after the case k is deleted. Using one-step linear approximations given by Pregibon (1981). The decrease in the value of statistics due to deletion of the kth case is Ãâ = Ãâ¹- , k=1,2,3,Ã¢â¬ ¦..,n 3.1 is defined as: 3.2 = And for the kth deleted case is: = 3.3 Deviance residual The one-step linear approximation for change in deviance when the kth case is deleted is: ÃâD = D Ãâ¹- D(-k) 3.4 Because the deviance is used to measure the goodness of fit of a model, a substantial decrease in the deviance after the deletion of the kth observation is indicate that is observation is a misfit. The deviance of Poisson regression with kth observation is: D=2 3.5 Where = exp ( D(-k)= 2 3.6 A larger value of ÃâD(-k) indicates that the kth value is an outlier. Hat matrix: The Hat matrix is used in residual diagnostics to measure the influence of each observation. The hat values, hii, are the diagonal entries of the Hat matrix which is calculated using H=V1/2X(XTVX)-1XTV1/2 3.7 Where V=diag[var(yi)(ii)]-1 var(yi)=E(yi)= In Poisson regression model =i) = (,where g function is usually called the link function and With the log link in Poisson regression i= = V=diag( 3.8 (XTVX)-1 is an estimated covariance matrix of and hii is the ith diagonal element of Hat matrix H. The properties of the diagonal element of hat matrix i.e leverage values are 0 and Where k indicates the parameter of the regression model with intercept term. An observation is said to be influential if ckn. where c is a suitably constant 2 and 3 or more. Using twice the mean thumb rule suggested by Hoaglin and Welsch (1978), an observation with 2kn considered as influential. Likelihood residual test For the detection of outliers, Williams (1987) introduced the likelihood residual. The squared likelihood residual is a weighted average of the squared standardized deviance and Pearson residual is defined as: 3.9 and it is approximately equals to likelihood ratio test for testing whether an observation is an outlier and it also called approximate studentized residual, is standardized Pearson residual is defined as: = 3.10 is standardized deviance residual is defined as: = 3.11 = sign( Where is called the deviance residual and it is another popular residual because the sum of square of these residual is a deviance statistic. Because the average value, KN, of hi is small is much closer to than to ,and therefore also approximately normally distributed. An observation is considered to be influential if |t(1, n Difference of fits test (DFFITS) Difference of fits test for Poisson regression is defined as: (DFFITS)i= , i=1,2,3,Ã¢â¬ ¦..,n 3.12 Where and are respectively the ith fitted response and an estimated standard error with the ith observation is deleted. DFFITS can be expressed in terms of standardized Pearson residuals and leverage values as: (DFFITS)i= 3.13 = = An observation is said to be influential if the value of DFFITS 2. CookÃ¢â¬â¢s Distance: Cook (1977) suggests the statistics which measures the change in parameter estimates caused by deleting each observation, and defined as: CDi= 3.14 Where is estimated parameter of without ith observation. There is also a relationship between difference of fits test and CookÃ¢â¬â¢s distance which can be expressed as: CDi= 3.15 Using approximation suggested by PregibonÃ¢â¬â¢s C.D can be expressed as: () 3.16 Observation with CD value greater than 1 is treated as an influential. Squared Difference in Beta (SDFBETA) The measure is originated from the idea of CookÃ¢â¬â¢s distance (1977) based on single case deletion diagnostic and brings a modification in DFBETA (Belsley et al., 1980), and it is defined as (SDFBETA)i = 3.17 After some necessary calculation SDFBETA can be relate with DFFITS as: (SDFBETA)i = 3.18 The ith observation is influential if (SDFBETA)i Diagnostic measures based on group deletion approach This section includes the detail of group deleted measures which are used to identify the multiple influential observations in Poisson regression model. Multiple influential observations can misfit the data and can create the masking or swamping effect. Diagnostics based on group deletion are effective for identification of multiple influential observations and are free from masking and swamping effect in the data. These measures are generalized standardized Pearson residual (GSPR), generalized difference of fits (GDFFITS) and generalized squared difference in Beta(GSDFBETA). 3.3.1 Generalized standardized Pearson residual (GSPR) Imon and Hadi (2008) introduced GSPR to identify multiple outliers and it is defined as: i 3.19 = i 3.20 Where are respectively the diagonal elements of V and H (hat matrix) of remaining group. Observations corresponding to the cases |GSPR| > 3 are considered as outliers. 3.3.2 Generalized difference of fits (GDFFITS) GDFFITS statistic can be expressed in terms of GSPR (Generalized standardized Pearson residual) and GWs (generalized weights). GWs is denoted by and defined as: for i 3.21 = for i 3.22 A value having is larger than, Median (MAD ( is considered to be influential i.e > Median (MAD ( Finally GDFFITS is defined as (GDFFITS)i= 3.23 We consider the observation as influential if GDFFITSi 3 3.3.3 Generalized squared difference in Beta (GSDFBETA) In order to identify the multiple outliers in dataset and to overcome the masking and swamping effect GSDFBETA is defined as: GSDFBETAi = for i 3.24 = for i 3.25 Now the generalized GSDFBETA can be re-expressed in terms of GSPR and GWs: GSDFBETAi = for i 3.26 = for i 3.27 A suggested cut-off value for the detection of influential observation is GSDFBETA
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Edgar Allan Poe; A Man of Secrecy Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Edgar Allan Poe was born on January 19, 1809 as Edgar Poe. He was the second son to Elizabeth Arnold Poe and David Poe. Both parents were actors, and shortly after PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s birth, his father deserted his family around 1810. Edgar became an orphan before the age of three years, when his mother died on December 8, 1811 in Richmond, Virginia at the age of twenty-four years. His father died at the age of twenty-seven years old. After his motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death, the childless couple, John and Frances Allan, took in Poe; his paternal grandparents took in brother William Henry; and foster parents cared for sister Rosalie. Allan was a strict and unemotional tobacco merchant and his wife was overindulgent. Poe was educated by the AllanÃ¢â¬â¢s aid, in private academies, excelling in Latin, in writing verse and declamation. However, regardless of his education, he was looked down upon by the upper class of society, perhaps because Poe was never legally adopted by the Al lanÃ¢â¬â¢s, nonetheless he was regarded as an outsider by the Richmond elite. However, being the child of former actorÃ¢â¬â¢s could have also added to his reputation of not fitting in with RichmondÃ¢â¬â¢s culture at that time. The loss of his mother at an early age definitely affected Poe, Ã¢â¬Å"The angels, whispering to one another, Can find, among their burning terms of love, None so devotional as that of Ã¢â¬ËMotherÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (To My Mother). In Tamerlane, he not only wrote about his father, but he wrote about his mother too. He had more respect for his mother than he did for his father. In Tamerlane he speaks much nicer of his mother. Ã¢â¬Å"O, she was worthy of all love! Love Ã¢â¬â as in infancy was mine Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ËTwas such as angel minds above Might envy; her young heart the shrine on which my every hope and thoughtÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Tamerlane). He thought of life with his mother and how it might have been. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1831 Poe moved to Baltimore to live with his aunt, Maria Clemm. There he fell in love and married her daughter and his cousin Virginia Clemm, who was not even fourteen at the time. Ten years later she also died of tuberculosis. He dearly loved his wife and after she died his life just went to pieces. In Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ , the character is morning over the death of Ã¢â¬Å"LenoreÃ¢â¬ when a raven visits him. Poe used the raven because it is a bird that feeds on dead flesh Ã¢â¬â a symbol of death. Ã¢â¬Å"... ... of common usageÃ¢â¬âit is the work of nine tenths of his critismÃ¢â¬ (221). Edgar Allan Poe was in fact born before his time! Works Cited Bohner, Charles H. Ã¢â¬Å"The John Hopkins PressÃ¢â¬ . John Pendleton Kennedy URL: http.//www.usna.edu/EnglishDept/poeperplex/kennedyp.htm (21 July 2000). Buranelli, Vincent. Edgar Allan Poe. Boston: Twayne Publishers. URL: http.//:www.toolcity.net/~zrm/lit/telltale/html (21 July 2000). Ljunguist Kent P. Edgar Allan Poe. Ã¢â¬ËGuide to Literary Theory & CritismÃ¢â¬ . Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã URL: http.//www.press.jhu.edu/books/hopinks_guide_to_literary_theory/ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã entries/edgar_allan_poe.html (20 July 2000). Ljunguist Kent P. Edgar Allan Poe. The World Book Encyclopedia. 2nd Edition. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Chicago, Ill: World Book Inc, 1987. Vol. 15. Poe, Edgar Allan, 1809-1849. The Collected Tales and Poems of Edgar Allan Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Poe. New York: Modern Library, 1992. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. 5th Edition. New York, New York: Norton & Company, 1999. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã
Saturday, January 11, 2020
CultÃ¢â¬ is a term used to describe certain religious groups outside of the mainstream of Western religion. A cut leader is non-Christian but has roots in Christianity while denying what he considered its essential teaching or can be one who follows an altogether different religious structure, one foreign and alien to the prevalent religious communities . in the in the case of the latter cults represent a force of religious innovation within a culture. In most cases that innovation comes about by the transplantation of a religion from a different culture by the immigration of some of its members and leaders. Others described cults as groups which hypnotized or brainwashed recruits, destroyed their ability to make rational judgments and turned them into slaves of the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s leader, as by the above definition Healter was cult leader since he practiced and allowed some of these practices which are associated with cult leaders ; Members swear total allegiance to an all-powerful leader who they believe to be the Messiah, rational thought is discouraged or forbidden, the cultÃ¢â¬â¢s recruitment techniques are often deceptive, the cult weakens the follower psychologically by making him or her depend upon the group to solve his or her problems, the cults manipulate guilt to their advantage, the cult leader makes all the career and life decision of the members, cults exist only for their own material survival and make false promises to work to improve society, cult members often work fulltime for the group for little or no pay, cults are apocalyptic and believe themselves to be the remn ant who will survive the soon-approaching end of the world. There are many things condick david crashed with the gorverment on appointment post also on issues facing religion. Reference: 1. Elmer ClarkÃ¢â¬â¢s pioneering survey of the Small Sects in America (1949) . .
Friday, January 3, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 827 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/09/24 Category Advertising Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Unethical Business Practices at Enron LDR/531 Organizational Leadership August 11, 2011 Unethical Business Practices at Enron Enron Corporation came into existance in 1985 as the result of a merger between InterNorth and Houston Natural Gas. This merger produced the longest natural-gas pipeline network in the United States. Under the leadership of Chief Executive Officer Jeffery Skilling, Enron changed from a gas-pipeline business into a natural-gas and electricity company during the 1990s. By the year 2000 it was the seventh largest United States corporation and by December 2001 it suffered the largest bankruptcy and stock collapse in the history of the United States. Enron used careless and misleading accounting practices to hide its financial problems. The use of unethical financial methods was used to benefit executive staff members and conceal financial losses. According to Sims and BrinkmannÃ (2003), Ã¢â¬Å"Enron created special purpose vehicles (SPVs), pseudo-part nerships that allowed the company to sell assets and create earnings that artificially enhanced its bottom lineÃ¢â¬ (p. 245). They also used overstated and inflated income projections from trading contracts after signing them. When Arthur Anderson, an outside auditing firm, accurately accounted for a partnership deal in 2001, large quarterly losses resulted. Those losses and ensuing profit and debt restatements caused Enrons stock price to drop, triggering the unraveling of the partnership and resulting in a sudden and remarkable financial collapse that led to bankruptcy in Dec. , 2001. Sixty-two percent of the company pension plan consisted Enron stock and the pension plans of nearly 20,000 Enron employees were destroyed (Enron Corporation, 2009). Because of unethical business practices of EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s management team, more than 30 people were charged with various crimes while more than 20 people, including top management officials were eventually convicted of or pleaded guilty to fraud, conspiracy, and other crimes (Enron Corporation, 2009). The downfall also destroyed EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s outside auditing firm, Arthur Andersen, who was accused of obstructing justice after destroying documents involving to the case in late 2001. Several financial institutions, including Citigroup and J. P. Morgan, paid millions of dollars in fines and penalties for their parts in financing and setting up the independent partnerships that contributed to Enrons collapse. Organizational Behavior (OB) applies the knowledge gained about individuals, groups, and the effect of structure on behavior to make organizations work more effectively. The first step in understanding OB lies in understanding individual behavior. Normally, employees come into organizations with definite integral characteristics that will manipulate their behavior at work. Personality characteristics, values and attitudes are some of the more obvious characteristics. Jeffery SkillingÃ¢â¬â¢s person al characteristics and ethical perspective were clearly known throughout the business world prior to being hired at Enron. Deeper investigation into his personal values and ethics may have prevented the downfall of Enron. According to Free, Macintosh, and SteinÃ (2007)Ã Ã¢â¬Å"His leadership style had emerged over a number of years. As early as high school Jeff Skilling held a reputation as not only a scholar, but one with a penchant for somewhat dangerous activities, a characteristic that resurfaced later at EnronÃ¢â¬ (p. 5). Group level variables signify that the behavior of individuals in groups is different from their behavior when they are alone. They are influenced by what the group considers acceptable standards of behavior. EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural environment under the leadership of Jeffery Skilling put employees under extreme pressure to conform to standards mandated by the corporate culture. If individuals were encouraged to think independently and if whistleblow ers were taken seriously, perhaps EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s downfall could have been avoided. Organization systems level variables add formal structure to individual and group behavior. An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s internal culture and human resources policies and practices all have an impact on the formal organization. Enron had sophisticated management controls in place at the time of its collapse. The three core parts of its management control system were the risk assessment and control group, performance review system and, its code of ethics (Free, Macintosh, Stein,Ã 2007). Although management controls were in place, corporate leadership fostered a culture that ignored them. If management controls were adhered to, the collapse of Enron may not have happened. The failure of Enron demonstrates that once employees align themselves with a particular corporate culture and committ to the organizational routines and guidance of leaders, they are liable to lose their original sense of identit y and reason away unethical actions. Once a new value system takes hold, a vulnerability to manipulation by leaders can occur. Top management leadership plays an important role in establishing corporate culture. Differences of opinion should be encouraged and individual contributions should be the norm to circumvent cultural group conformance. At the very least, personal and professional integrity should be the norm and not allowed to be compromised. References (2009). Enron Corporation. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1. Bartlett, C. , Ferrell, O. , Oliverio, M. (2002). Enron 101. BizEd, 40. Free, C. , Macintosh, N. , Stein, M. (2007). MANAGEMENT CONTROLS: THE ORGANIZATIONAL FRAUD TRIANGLE OF LEADERSHIP, CULTURE AND CONTROL IN ENRON. Ivey Business Journal, 71(6), 1. Sims, R. , Brinkmann, J. (2003). Enron Ethics (Or: Culture Matters More than Codes). Journal of Business Ethics, 45(3), 243-256. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Unethical Business Practices" essay for you Create order
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2772 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Did you like this example? Grimshaw (2009, pg no 7) claims that bringing person or persons into the organisation is called Recruitment. It begins with the declaration to recruit continue through to the induction and settlement of the new employees. The action of adjudicating between groups of one or more applicants who is more appropriate for a particular job is called Selection. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "AN ANALYTICAL REPORT ON RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION" essay for you Create order Edwin, B. Flippo. 1980. The Personal Management. The action or process of exploring the applicants for employment and activating them to assign for jobs in the organisation is called Recruitment. Recruitment and selection designates the consecution and arrangement of activities affecting to recruitment and selection of employable applicants and job holders for an organization The main aim of recruiting and selection is to get qualified employees who are suitable into the culture of the organization. According to Erich and Leonard 2009 in his recent study it was found that an appropriate Job analysis is the base of all other human resources functions. If we dont properly understand the nature, attributes of the job, we cannot hire the proper candidates for that specific job. While recruiting candidates an organization should keep in mind about the worthiness and quality of that specific position of the job holder. They should be trained after recruitment; organizatio n should provide guidelines, arrange some development programs for the better criteria. It should begin with a proper job analysis. (Erich and Leonard 2009) JOB ANALYSIS A recent study (Hartley 1999) found that an organised and efficient process for gathering, collecting and examining the information about jobs is Job analysis. The collection of information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a specific job can also be called Job analysis. It accommodates the basis for a job description, which access decisions on recruitment, training, streamlined efficient and rewards systems. There is no point for hiring people unless we know what we are hiring them for. The main aim of recruiting job analysis is to adapt job description and job specification which helps to hire good quality of work force into the organization. The management of a business need to conclude what sort of work need to be done. Job analysis is a key part of this need. COMPRISES OF JOB ANALYSIS Job analysis would commonly contain: Nature What is the job and how should it recounts to the business? Purpose Engagement and Commitment in the organization. Duties and Accountabilities Achievements and Outcomes that the Job holder capable for. Performance criteria Measurement of Job holders Performance. Resource requirements Like Equipment, Location or Entrepreneur. While recruiting; organisation should mention the above criteria for the Job holders so that the candidates should consider the aim, purpose, liabilities, responsibilities, duties thoroughly and deeply. Example: In AIRLINES the air hostess job is to look after and provide good quality of services towards their passengers. The criteria of this organisation are not high enough. Those candidates are given first priority whose communication is good, who are soft spoken, look smart and descend, have good behaviour and etc, because it is all about customer care services. If the air hostess looks good and if she/he speaks gently, the p assenger will automatically be persuaded and that is how the good reputation of the company or organisation can be made and more possible good outcomes could be achieved. As it is said that: First impression is the last impression. While recruiting; an air line also looks that the candidates should not be short tempered. These are the basic demands for hiring candidates in an air line. If the candidates are able to meet these standards; they will be appointed. We can take another good example about army recruitment and selection. The Gurkha recruiting process is one of the toughest of any Army in the world. Their soldiers are selected from amongst many thousands of hopeful applicants.ÃâÃ Gurkha soldiers tour around the remote villages of Nepal conducting the initial screening tests. Every applicant must meet the certain standards of education, fitness and health. If successful, they will be called to attend the next step. Retired Gurkha Officers hold a number of selection days across the country. Every recruit has to give his best and has to take the maths exam in order to qualify for the next level. The criteria are quite high enough, and no weaknesses are accepted. All who make it throug h this stage are good enough to be soldiers in the British Army, but very few are able to make it. Central selection is that process where those applicants are selected who has passed previous stages. This is the last and final hurdle for the candidates. In Bokhara, Western Nepal the candidates have to report recruiting depot and spend 2 weeks being put through their paces. Doko race is the most hardest and gruelling assessment. Candidates has to complete a 2 mile race up a near vertical hill carrying 35kg of rocks in a basket, the weight borne by the traditional Nepalese carrying strap across the forehead, due to which their stamina and potential can be checked out and it should be completed within 20 mints. All the candidates should have passed the Nepalese School Leaving Certificate, equivalent to between GCSE and A-Level standard in the UK.ÃâÃ If successful, the will be taken to Catterick in North Yorkshire to undergo training in the Gurkha Wing of the Infantry Tra ining Centre. In his 8 months training, the new soldier will not only learn military skills, but will also pass English language exams.Ãâ After passing all these training, he can feel proud what he has achieved, but he will have to work harder and harder to live for his reputation that his forefathers have built. (Gurkha soldiers recruitment) ESTABLISHING GOOD AND EFFECTIVE HIRING POLICY: According to Kumar and Sharma (2000) in their research, an employers recruitment and selection practices look to ensure and most capable for job holders. Job analysis information helps job holders to achieve those aims and goals by ensuring selection criteria, such as the knowledge, skills, accountabilities and capabilities needed to perform a job successfully. Policies should be flexible in order to make good and efficient hiring practice. Job title, duties, responsibilities tasks are very essential contents. Targets and performances standard that the job holder is required to accompli sh for the benefits of an organization. An organizational managers and human resource (HR) can use these information to choose or to develop adapt selection devices for instance interview, questions and tests. This approach to selection legally required. Job Description: Kleynhans, Ronel. 2006. Human Resource Management. Job description can be used to create some advertisements to recruit new employees and should give them some extra information about the job. The recruiter has to know the qualifications, skills or knowledge that the candidates need to perform that specific job. Without giving any information, an organisation would have to recruit and select, employees without any clear guidelines, and this could have given very bad results for the employees and the organisation. Advantages of Job Description: Clark. M, Marjorie. 2008. The Job Description Handbook. Job description accepts various numbers of some other considerable purposes. It discloses expectations and allows employees know what it catches to exceed in their jobs. Grant, C. Philip.1989. Multiple uses Job Descriptions: a guide to analysis, preparationÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦ It is a communication tool. If it is well prepared, it will give you a great deal about a job. Relevant information could be used in every human resource management and beyond the bounds. It will help the employees, their fellow workers, their bosses and people outside the organisation. If it is well described and prepared, will provide these people with a logical, laconic and accurate frame work. It mainly accommodates duties, aim, purpose, motives, responsibilities, vision, and working postures of a job along with a jobs title. A job description could also be used as a job indicator for candidates for a job. It can also be used as a guideline for an employee for the responsibility and duty within the organisation and the main aim and purpose of a job description is to have tracing an object of duties, sinsererities, and responsibilities to make the adumbrating action as direct and focused as possible. Job description may have the following contents: Responsibilities/roles can be improved by providing facilities to the members of the organisation. Empowering career moves within the organisation. Function of the assurance of the amount to pay. Specification of the job owner should be boosted comprehensively. While recruiting jobs into the market above standards could be the main elements for the job description. Job Specification: Kleynhans, Ronel. 2006. Human Resource Management. Credentials having minimum acceptable qualification that person should have to perform particular job. The concept of the job specification is derived from the job analysis. Educational requirements, personality traits or characteristics, experience, vision and physical abilities are included in Job specification. The candidates must have specific skills, capabilities, in order to fulfill the desired tasks of a position given by an organisation. A person specification can be outlined by the educational or institutional concerns, specialized training experience as well as more personal qualifications that an applicant must obtain. Heron, Robert. 2005. Job and work analysis: Guidelines or identifying jobs for persons withÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦ According to him, the productive placement in employment of job finders with disabilities associates making the best possible match between qualifications, interest, assur ance, expectations and the requirements of enterprises, attested in the job descriptions and job specifications for particular vacancies. The job placements process needs detailed job description for each vacancy and a depicted job specification defining the general and particular concerns for every vacancy. Both the job description and job specification are depended on job analysis. Without good quality job analysis the description of job favourable circumstances will be ambiguous than absolute, general rather than specific, broad rather than detailed. Job specification specifies the qualities much needed in a job incumbent for the efficient and effective performance of the job. According to MUNRO FRASER, he gave some 5 useful points regarding recruitment and selection which are as under: The Frazer 5 Points Impact on others or the kind of acknowledge a persons manifest, speech and manner calls out from others. Qualifications and experience the skills, capabilities and knowledge required for different jobs. Innate abilities how immediately and accurately a persons mind works. Motivation The kind of work that demands to a person and the amount of aspiration they are prepared to put into it. Emotional (psychological/interpersonal) adjustment ability to work and cope with the commands of living and working with other people. Employment Legislation: According to Smith and Thomas 2007 research it was noted that Employment law is subjected of as a rapid revolution which could have happened to any authorized subject in this current era, and is absolutely one of the most challenging areas of law which should be kept well informed. Human Resources are getting changed rapidly in this era by Employment legislation. This domain will help you understand what authorized tools exist now; how your business will be affected and on what areas you need to be careful for. These sorts of objects are jotted down in a non confused, understandable way. Employment legislation influences on recruitment and selection: During this era body of legislation or law has developed ruling employer/employee Connections, interactions and the rights of employees and the employers in the organisation. Employment Equality and Regulations are being followed and providing equal opportunities to the UK employers. No candidates or employee will get less favour or treatment on the grounds of sexual orientation, discrimination in the areas of sex, political belief, disability, marital status, race, ethnic origin, nationality, religion or social classes. Following are the Acts which elaborates Employment Legislation deeply. The employment rights Act: Employment Relations Acts of 1999 and 2003 gives the vast range of authorized rights for the employees which mentions, Pay statement and national minimum wage should be declared, the terms and conditions must be set out in writing in order to protect unfair and biased dismissal at work. According to the sex discrimination Act, 1975: Employees must be protected against discrimination on the grounds of gender, for instance: While job advertisements into the market as well as recruiting and selecting employees for jobs, In assisting employees, offering training and career opportunities. There are some exceptional cases in which this Act doesnt apply related to Genuine Occupational Qualifications (GOQs). For example: if a female actress is hired to play female part in the film. The Equal Pay Act of 1970: According to this Act, men and women should receive equal payment for the same work to be done. The Race Relations Act, 1976: Race discrimination is illegal in the same way as the sex discrimination Act. For instance: Advertise for an English waiter to work in an English restaurant. The Disability Discrimination Act, 1995: When a disabled person is treated less favourably by the discriminator it comes under the discrimination Act. The National Minimum Wage Act, 1998: Legally employee must be paid at the minimum wage and this is increased each year in line with the rise in the cost of living. All Employees can work maximum 48 hours per week, and four weekly holidays. Recruitment and Selection Process: The evolution of captivating, attracting, screening, selecting accomplished and qualified people for a job at an organisation, company or a firm is called Recruitment. Some important criteria must be considered while offering job vacancy into the market, which is mentioned below: Vacancy Arises Need to fill position confirmed Consider job Description, job Specification and Selection criteria Prepare for Advertising whether it is internally, locally or both Determine the position of the job holder Prepare information packages Packages shall be approved by Human Resources Confidentiality Application forms Selection committee Responsibilities and duties of Selection committee Developed interview questions Conducting interviews Verifying credentials Rank of applicants Reference checking Selection report Advice to applicants Appeals process Induction Review Above are the main and important factors in recruiting and sel ection process. Jobs can be advertised through many different ways. Now days it is advertised mostly via news papers, internet, t through TV channels etc. People are getting informed and educated through all this modern techniques. For instance: if I am working in the Banking sector as a Branch Manager and I have to leave, I would advertise via newspapers, internet, and street banners etc. These could be the cheap modes of advertisement. The person who is looking for this job should be capable, got managing and communication skills, confident, experienced, punctual, goal oriented and is able to satisfy his customer utmost. He will be recruited in Head office by Regional Manager and Branch Manager. Duration of the interview may be more than 1 hour. While recruiting he will be observed and take into consideration whether this job is suitable for him or not, because he will have to make some good decisions so that the maximum profit could be generated and is able to give laconic presentation in front of Regional Director, Branch Manager, and Country Manager. If I ask to offer jobs into the market I would recommend this format for hiring employees. VACANCY Branch Manager Positions 05 Job Title Publication: External Industry: Banking Sector Department: General Designation: Branch Manager Location: Romford Degree Title: MBA Career Level: 5 years Experienced, as A Branch Manager Apply by: Sep 20th, 2010 Posted: Aug 21st, 2010 Job Description The applicants for the above posted job should be able to achieve assigned invested targets as well as keep trying to increase investment level. Make some effective policies due to which we are able to make good relation with the customer and try to promote business and generate money. The Selection Criteria: The Branch Manager will be selected on the basis of following criteria: Good effective organisational skills, attention to detail accuracy. Knowledge of the Banking sector, and the good policy maker. Be able to communicate with the staff politely and gently. Good oral and written skills. Capacity to work in a team in international environment. Knowledge of English as a working language. It would be an asset if the candidate has professional and reach to above criteria in order to promote business. They should be devoted, sincere and loyal towards their duties and responsibilities. Good attitude and behaviour plays a very vital role in any organization. If the job holder is focused, expert and motivated good results and outcomes can easily be achieved. Due to this, performance will be better and more chances to win the confidence of the customer. Owing to this, the customer attracts towards you and that is what any organization looks for this in order to buil d goodwill and make a good reputation into the market and more efficient possible outcomes could be achieved.
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Bix Beiderbecke Leon Bix Beiderbecke was born on March 10, 1903 in Davenport. Bix was named after his father, Leon Bismark Beiderbecke, even though there is dispute over whether his legal name was also Leon Bismark, or if it was in fact Leon Bix. He was one of the most sought after cornetists in the 1920s, while he only became famous many years after his death in 1931. Today he is careful one of the early jazz musicians skilled enough to be related to the great Louis Armstrong, and his advanced method helped shortest later jazz styles. His life on the other hand, was one damaged by self-destructive behavior, marked by fatal alcoholism. However, Bix was a piano teacher, though impressed with the childs expected talent, quit in foiling because Bix refused learn to read a sheet of music, and wouldnt stop changing around the notes of music. His mother, herself an skillful pianist, also failed to teach Bix how to read music, and gave him some idea of her youngest son becoming a concert pianist. Bix was starting to play a different style of music, a style of which the traditional parents of Davenport did not approve. Strains of Jazz and blues would gist to the banks of the Mississippi, and he, riveted despite his parents. Usually late for supper when a big riverboat was due to cruise by. One night, he did not come home at all, but he returned the next day morning escorted by the captain of the riverboat on which Bix had stowed away. The captain of the boat supposedly told